LiburMulu.com – Indonesia is a country that crosses the Equator between the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean. Indonesia has land borders with Malaysia in the north and Timor Leste and Papua New Guinea in the east, also neighboring Australia in the south, and Palau, Philippines, Vietnam, Singapore and Thailand in the north, India in the northwest.
Information below will be regularly updated with the latest information and relevant links. This article is intended as a Guide to Traveling Around Indonesia in one article.
|Area:||Total: 1,904,569km²; Water: 93,000km²; Land: 1,811,569km²|
|Population:||245,452,739 (Estimated July 2006)|
|Language:||Indonesian (official) and countless regional languages.|
|Religion:||Islam 88%; Protestant 5%; Catholic 3%; Hindu 2%; Buddhist 1%; Others 1% (1998)|
|Electricity:||220V / 50Hz (Schuko Euro plug)|
|Zone Time:||GMT + 7 to GMT + 9|
With a total of 18,110 islands, 6,000 of the island is inhabited. Indonesia is the largest archipelagic country in the world. There are around 240 million people living in the most populous country. Number four in the world – after China, India and the United States – and by far the largest country in Southeast Asia. Indonesia also has the largest Muslim population in the world. Indonesia's population is predicted to overtake the US and become the third largest before 2044. In the decade ending in 2010, population growth has remained high at 1.49% every year but there is considerable Muslim opposition to increasing family planning.
Indonesia market its tourism with the Wonderful Indonesia tagline, and a pretty good slogan, although the implementation is not always carried out in a good way. Indonesia's tropical forests are the second largest in the world after Brazil, and are being cut down and reduced at an alarming rate. While shopping paradise is in Jakarta and tourist paradise is in Bali. After decades of mismanagement in the economy 50.6% of the population still earns less than USD 2 / day according to figures compiled by the World Bank in 2009. This has fallen by 6% in the two years between 2007 and 2009. Infrastructure in some parts of the country remain imperfect, and travelers who visit remote places will need a lot of patience and flexibility.
According to the "Energy Access" Global Energy Network Working Group for Sustainable Development, in 2001, 53.4% of Indonesia's population had access electricity and they consume 345kWh for everyone in a year. In the same year, Singapore's closest population has 100% access and they consume 6,641 kWh. Most of Indonesia's population still depend on wood for cooking fuel. The central government has in the past few years instituted an LPG gas access program to be used as a substitute for fuel for cooking.
Early, modern Indonesian history began in the period from 2500 BC to 1500 BC with waves of bright brown Austronesian immigrants , which is thought to have originated in Taiwan. These Neolithic groups are people, skilled in maritime travel in the open sea and also agriculture. They are believed to be fast replacing existing ones, a less developed population.
From this point onwards, dozens of kingdoms and civilizations developed and faded in various parts of the archipelago. Several important kingdoms included Sriwijaya (7-14th century) from Sumatra and Majapahit (1293- 1500), based in East Java but first to unite the main islands of Sumatra, Java, Bali and Kalimantan (now Kalimantan) as well as parts of Peninsular Malaysia.
The first European to arrive (after Marco Polo who passed in the 1200s) was Portuguese, who was given permission to set up a warehouse in a place now known as Jakarta Jakarta in 1522. But at the end of the century, the Dutch began to take over a lot, competing with Britain in 1619. which then strengthened its position on Java, and continued to 350 years of occupation. Even Britain had occupied Java in 1811-1816. In 1824, the Dutch and British signed the Anglo-Dutch Treaty which divided Malays into Dutch and British territories. The Dutch surrendered Malacca to England, and the British handed over all their colonies in Sumatra to the Dutch. The division line roughly corresponds to what is now the border between Malaysia and Indonesia, with a small segment being the border between Singapore and Indonesia.
Various nationalist groups began to develop at the beginning of the 20th century, and there were several disturbances, but were quickly overcome by Netherlands. The leader was arrested and exiled. Then during World War II, Japan conquered most of the islands. In August 1945, in the post-war vacuum after Japan surrendered to allied forces the Japanese army and navy still controlled the majority of the Indonesian archipelago. Japan agreed to return Indonesia to the Netherlands, but continued to manage it for a while. Because the Dutch could not immediately return due to the massive instability of the impact of the war in Europe.
On 17 August 1945 Sukarno read the Proclamation or Declaration of Independence and the Indonesian Independence Preparatory Committee (PPKI) formed an interim government. A constitution, drawn up by the PPKI preparatory committee was announced on 18 August and Sukarno was declared by the President with Hatta as Vice President. PPKI was then remade into the KNIP and KNIP (Central Indonesian National Committee) to become a temporary body. The new government was installed on 31 August 1945. Indonesian founders Soekarno (Soekarno) and Hatta declared independence of the Republic of Indonesia.
The Dutch launched a diplomatic and military campaign to reclaim their former national colonies. Debate, negotiation, partition and armed conflict prevail between the newly independent Indonesia and the Netherlands. Some countries including the United States were very critical of the Netherlands in the postwar period immediately and at one stage at the end of 1949 the US government stopped the assistance given to the Netherlands under Marshal's plan. This problem was also raised by the newly formed United Nations. After four years of fighting, the Dutch accepted defeat and on December 27, 1949 they officially transferred the sovereignty of the "United Republic of Indonesia" (Republic of the United States of Indonesia). In August 1950 a new constitution was proclaimed and the new Republic of Indonesia was formed from the original but now expanded the Republic to include East Sumatra and Eastern Indonesia / State of East Indonesia. Jakarta was made capital of the Republic of Indonesia but the Netherlands and Indonesia remained in theoretical constitutional unions with Indonesia holding the status of a fully independent state.
In September 1950 Natsir and the Masyumi party led the first fully independent Indonesian government. Sukarno returned to the role of President and from time to time came to assert greater strength in the role. For the time being Indonesia used a provisional constitution modeled on it from the US which also took a lot from the UN Universal Declaration of Human Rights 1948. On September 26, 1950 Indonesia was brought to the newly formed UN. The 1950 Constitution appeared to have been an attempt to create a liberal democractic system with two parliamentary chambers. Then in 1955, still in this interim constitution, Indonesia held its first free elections.
The new government was tasked with completing the permanent and final version of the constitution but after much consensus debate was not reached towards organizing public demonstrations in 1958. In 1959 President Soekarno issued a decree dissolving the constitution then at this time and returned the 1945 Constitution. Indonesia then entered the era of Guided Democracy with the Head of State assuming the president's power was stronger and also absorbed the previous role of the Prime Minister.
From their initial declaration of Indonesian independence claimed West Papua as part of their nation, but the Dutch held into the 1960s, and in the early sixties there was further armed conflict over the region. After a UN-brokered peace agreement, and a referendum, West Papua became part of Indonesia and was renamed Irian Jaya, which means Joining (part of) the Republic of Indonesia, Anti Dutch. But now it is only called Papua.
During the post-war and cold war periods Sukarno made friendly progress to the United States, the Soviet Union and later, China. He also tried to turn one against the other when he tried to build the nation as a non-aligned nation. Many were anxious after the cold war, Sukarno wanted to engage in intimate dialogue with the Soviets, as well as the receipt of civil and military assistance, equipment, and technical assistance from the Soviet Union. Sukarno openly stated that his engagement with the Soviets was to help in promoting the new Republic of Indonesia as a post-war non-aligned country and to assist in rebuilding the nation after the Pacific war. At this time the US is trying to consolidate their control over regional and strategic interests in Southeast Asia and Indo-China.
The US, dealing with an archipelago country seems to be strong in nationalism. Indonesia seeks to gain and maintain control over the region's important resources and delivery routes. They see Indonesia as a potentially unstable country and in the remaining power vacuum in the wake of Japan's defeat in Indonesia. The Dutch, their nation in the war of Europe, were unable to fully reclaim their colonies and maintain control over the rising tide of Indonesian nationalism. The US secretly supported anti-Sukarno's activities and operations to disrupt the nationalist movement. In 1957-1958, the CIA infiltrated weapons and personnel to support the regional rebellion against Sukarno. Secret actions at this time led to the arrest of an American pilot and a plane. Activities involve the use of mercenary forces and material and financial support from rebels. Funding, arms, logistical support and training are provided covertly by the US because of factional divisions, right-wing elements, and radical Islamic groups including Darul Islam in an effort to get the US and western control of Indonesian nationalism. Actions were supported from the US embassy in Singapore, based on elements of the US 7th fleet stationed in Sulawesi and Sumatra and with cooperation and support from the British government and Western intelligence agencies.
In 1965, in a highly controversial and confusing state involving a military coup, Sukarno, known for his support for Indonesian nationalism and independence displaced by Suharto, an army general with a strong anti-communist view. Suharto initially served in the Japanese occupation force to support the police, then he entered PETA (Defender of the Homeland) and continued to train in Japan led by the Indonesian armed forces from the occupation. In the postwar period it was believed he fell under US influence and patronage and with their support he and his supporters rose in figure and influence.
In September 1965 six generals were killed in an apparent coup attempt. Kidnappings and subsequent killings occurred in very suspicious situations and somewhat confusing official accounts have been found to be highly suspect. A group of senior officers including military commander Lieutenant General Ahmad Yani seems to have been increasingly at odds with the alliance of right-wing officers including Suharto. The officer killed was supporting Sukarno and accommodating the President's relationship with the PKI (Indonesian Communist Party). Subandrio, Foreign Minister Sukarno, second deputy prime minister and intelligence chief, 1960-1966 had infiltrated the secret meeting agency of the right-wing general planning the overthrow of Sukarno.
It was believed he might have deposited the rebellion by releasing information about this but details still uncertain. Rebellions were reported between units in Central Java, air force units at Halim air force base and armed forces units that occupied Merdeka Square, a strategic part of the capital. The so-called "September 30 group" leader claiming troops present at Merdeka Square was to protect the Presidency from a planned uprising that would be arranged by a group of generals supported by the CIA. . Right-wing officers who later rose to power condemned the killing of senior army officers and claimed rebellions involving communist military units. As more documentation emerges from the Western archives it seems increasingly clear that this stage show successfully enabled Suharto the opportunity to later claim leadership. In the early stages Suharto blamed the killings on a group of young PKI who incited easy children, women and "elements of the Air Force."
The killings were then to blame on the PKI, communists and the September 30 movement, ironically the group the same who claimed to have come together in an attempt to thwart the right wing of the coup. Suharto initially claimed to support President Sukarno but later seized power himself, marginalizing Sukarno, declaring the New Order (New Order). A series of bloody anti-communist cleansing then initiated causing the deaths of 500,000-2,000,000 people (estimates vary). Western governments turn a blind eye to massacres and they remain substantially reported in the West for sufficient time. Many historians have since shed light on the involvement of US intelligence services and lower levels of their joint contacts in Britain, German and Japanese intelligence in a state of power ahead of Suharto's power struggle and subsequent killings of killers.
When information regarding widespread killings, finally released, everything is only shrouded in mystery. US and CIA intelligence agencies were later found to be involved in supplying the names and addresses of PKI members to the Indonesian army, Suharto's cooperative and CIA funded Muslim death squads, who hunted the lower left and killed them. Classified US files have since shown that the US government provided covert assistance to Suharto and the death squads to carry out extensive cleansing throughout Indonesia. Following the rise of Suharto in power, US interests in the region were safe and their influence on the Republic of Indonesia and national resources continued into the new century.
Under Suharto 1966-1997, Indonesia enjoyed stability and economic growth, but most of the wealth was concentrated in the hands small, corrupt, elite and dissent brutally destroyed. During the Asian economic crisis in 1997 the value of the Indonesian rupiah plummeted, halving the purchasing power of the Indonesian people. In the ensuing turbulence of violence, now known as Reformasi, Suharto was dropped and a more democratic regime.
The former Portuguese colony in East Timor was annexed by Indonesia in 1975, but there was armed resistance. After decades of Indonesian rule, on August 30, 1999, the provincial independence referendum was approved by the people of East Timor. Indonesia was reluctant to let go, surprisingly received the results (although army militias protested by plundering the capital Dili), and East Timor became independent in 2002.
A more violent separatist movement took place in the Islamic obedient state of Aceh on the northern tip of Sumatra. After decades of rebellion and failed talks, the impasse was broken by the 2004 tsunami, which killed more than 200,000 people in Aceh. The Indonesian government and the Free Aceh Movement (Free Aceh Movement, GAM) signed a peace agreement next year, with Aceh giving up fighting for independence in exchange for those granted special autonomy including the right to impose Sharia (Islamic law), and to date peace has been held.
In 2004 Indonesia held the first election in which people directly elected the president and vice president. The Indonesian president may currently serve a maximum of two consecutive five years. At present Indonesia is one of the world's largest democracies and will go through a period of difficult reforms and rediscovery following reforms and democratically elected government institutions. To assist in the transformation of the years of centralized control under the Soeharto regime the role of regional and provincial governments was strengthened and enhanced. The electoral process in Indonesia has a high level of participation and the nature and governance of artificial administration is also slowly changing throughout Indonesia. Changes in the nation since the fall of Suharto have also been marked by greater freedom of speech and massive reductions in political censorship that characterize Suharto's New Order era. There are political debates that are more open in the news media as well as in public, political and social debate.
Although 50 years of promoting Unity in Diversity ("Bhinneka Tunggal Ika") as the official motto of the country, the concept of "Indonesia "It is still artificial and citizens divide themselves along large killings of ethnicity, ethnicity, ethnicity and even caste. If this is not enough, religious differences add volatile material into the mix and a large gap in wealth creates class society as well. On pure numerical scales, the largest ethnic groups are Java (45%) from central and eastern Java, Sundanese (14%) from West Java, Madura (7.5%) from Madura island, and Pantai Melayu (7.5%), mostly from Sumatra. This makes 26% for Aceh and Sumatra, Bali, Iban and Dayak Minangkabau from Kalimantan, and patchy confusing groups in Nusa Tenggara and Papua – the official total is not less than 3000!
For the most part, many people in Indonesia coexist happily, but ethnic conflicts continue to persist in some remote areas of the country. The transmigration policy (transmigration), initiated by the Dutch but continued by Suharto, transferred the Javanese, Balinese and Madurese migrants to remote parts of the archipelago. New settlers, seen as privileged and sensitive, are often hated by indigenous people and, especially in Kalimantan and Papua, causing conflict, sometimes even violence.
One particularly well-known ethnic group found throughout the country is China Indonesia, which known as Chinese or somewhat insulting to China. About 6-7 million of them make up 3% of the population and are probably the largest Chinese ethnic group in any country outside China. Chinese Indonesians hold a disproportionate influence on the economy, with one famous – if largely discredited – Study of companies on the Jakarta Stock Exchange concludes that as many as 70% of companies (and, by extension, the state) are controlled by ethnic Chinese.  They were thus subject to persecution, with China forced to move to urban areas in 1960, forced to adopt Indonesian names and prohibitions imposed on teaching Chinese and displaying Chinese characters. An anti-Chinese program also took place, especially in 1965-1966 anti-communist purge after Soeharto's coup and again in 1998 after his fall, when more than 1,100 people died in riots in Jakarta and other major cities. However, the post-Reformation government has overturned most discriminatory laws, and Chinese writings and Chinese festivals have made a reappearance, with the Chinese New Year which has been declared a national public holiday since 2003. While the majority of Chinese Javanese are monolingual in Indonesia , many Chinese in Sumatra and Kalimantan continue to speak various Chinese dialects.
There is no such thing as an Indonesian cultural unit, but the Hindu culture of the former Majapahit kingdom does not provide a framework for many cultural traditions found on the island main islands like Sumatra, Java, Bali and Lombok. Probably the most typical art of "Indonesia" is wayang kulit, where it tells the complicated and detailed pieces of scenes from Mahabharata and Ramayana and other popular folklore. Wayang is accompanied by a gamelan orchestra, usually held for religious ceremonies and traditional entertainment. Indonesian culture is related to the Malays, including important items such as batik cloth and dagger daggers, and Arabic culture has also been adopted thanks to the development of Islam.
Indonesia's popular modern culture is largely dominated by the largest ethnic group, the Javanese. Suharto's ban on Western imports such as rock'n'roll was long revoked, causing the development of original forms of music such as dangdut, a pop-hot form developed in the 1970s, and offering a television pelvis from the young star Inul Daratista in 2003 which was almost just as controversial as Elvis was. Anggun Cipta Sasmi is a talented Indonesian singer who became a famous singer in France. The single "La neige au Sahara" became the top hit on the European charts in the summer of 1997.
Most Indonesian films are low budget B films. "Leaves Above Pillows" (1998) are exceptions; won the "best film" award at the Asia Pacific Film Festival in Taipei, Taiwan (1998). The Raid, Redemption (Indonesia: Serbuan Maut), and also known as The Raid was released in 2011 at the Toronto International Film Festival and has international distribution. This Indonesian action film has a production budget of 1,100,000 pounds. It was written and directed by Gareth Evans (UK) and starred by Iko Uwais. Evans and Uwais released their first action film, Merantau in 2009.
Both films feature traditional Indonesian martial arts Pencak Silat. Indonesian literature has not made much progress on the world stage, with the torch works of Pramoedya Ananta Toer long banned in his own homeland, but the post-Suharto era has seen a small explosion with Saman Ayu Utami violating both taboo and sales records.
80-88% of Indonesians claim their religion as Islam (Sunni) makes it numerically the biggest and Indonesia is the largest Muslim majority country in the world. However, Indonesia officially remains a secular state. Although different religious orthodoxy in the Indonesian archipelago, strict adherence from Islamic dress codes is clearly absent in some countries. In large cities the hijab and clear manifestations of faith are exceptions rather than rules. In some regional regions and countries that obey Aceh can be much tighter. In fact, although nominally Muslim, many Hindu, Buddhist or animist stories and customs are locally well preserved by the majority of the population.
The other four recognized religions in Indonesia are Protestant (5%), Roman Catholic (3% ), Hinduism (2%) and Buddhism (1%). Hinduism is concentrated in Bali, while Christians are mostly found in parts of North Sumatra, Papua, North Sulawesi and East Nusa Tenggara. Buddhism, on the other hand, is mainly done by ethnic Chinese in big cities. There is also animism throughout the country.
Indonesian national law stipulates that all Republicans must declare their religion and that religion is declared to be one of the five officially approved by the state, but after reformation, Confucianism is now recognized (previously equated with Buddhism, Protestantism and Roman Catholicism, unfortunately not for Ahmadiyah Islam and Shia. This causes clear distortion. For example, many animist practitioners call themselves Muslims or Christians for the benefit of the state bureaucracy and many Muslims in rural areas also have their traditional way of life that greatly influences their practice of Islam.
Multicultural Indonesia celebrate various kinds of religious festivals and festivals, but many are limited to small areas (for example, the Balinese Hindu festival). The following includes national holidays applied regardless of their beliefs.
The most significant season of the year is the fasting month of Ramadan. For 30 days, devout Muslims refrained from hunger and thirst (food, drink, smoke) from sunrise to sunset. People get up early for things themselves before sunrise (sahur), go to work late, and take off early to return home in time to break the fast (breaking the fast) at sunset. Non-Muslims, as well as Muslims traveling (travelers), are freed from fasting but are polite to refrain from eating or drinking in public. Many restaurants are closed during the day and people stay open (for example, hotel restaurants), only with curtains covering the windows. During Ramadan, all forms of nightlife include bars, nightclubs, karaoke and massage parlors near midnight, and (especially in more pious areas) some choose to remain completely closed. Business travelers will see that objects move at a speed that is more than usual glacial and, especially towards the end of the month, many people will take time off. one or two weeks of leave to return home to visit family. In Indonesia this ritual is known as mudik, which means going home. This is one time in 1 year when Jakarta does not have traffic jams. But the whole country is not, with all forms of transportation that is always crowded. All government offices (including embassies) and many businesses are closed for a week or even two, and traveling around Indonesia should be avoided if possible.
Other Muslim holidays include Eid al-Adha (sacrificial day), Isra Mi'raj Muhammad SAW, Hijrah (year new Islam) and Maulid Muhammad SAW. Christian holidays include Christmas, Ascension Day, Good Friday, while the Nyepi Hindu New Year (March-April) and Buddhists get holidays for Chinese New Year (Chinese New Year) January-February and Vesak (Buddhist birthdays), celebrated with processions around Borobudur . Non-religious holidays include New Year (January 1) and Independence Day (August 17).
The dates of many holidays are determined according to various lunar calendars and dates so that they change from year to year. The Labor Department can change the official holiday dates if they are close to the weekend. There are other official days of leave for workers, called joint leave (taking a day off together), which is sometimes close to Eid al-Fitr.
The climate in Indonesia is mostly warm, and air wet. Yes, Indonesia is a warm place. Do not have spring, summer, autumn, or winter, only two seasons: rain and dry, both of which are relative (still raining during the dry season, it only rains less). Although there are significant regional variations, in most countries (including Java and Bali) the dry season is April to October, while the rainy season is November to March.
In the highlands the temperature will naturally be cooler, and there are even closed peaks snow in Papua, on the mountain at an altitude of 5000m. Carrying a thick jacket is highly recommended if planning to visit the highlands, for example, Mount Bromo in Java or Tana Toraja in Sulawesi.
Because the country is very large, Indonesia is divided into three time zones:
GMT +7 : West Indonesian Time (WIB)
GMT +8 : Central Indonesia Time (WITA)
GMT +9 : East Indonesia Time (WIT)
The Indonesian nation is almost unimaginable in size: More than 17,000 islands provide 108,000 kilometers of coastline. The distance between Aceh in the West and Papua in the East is more than 4,000 km (2,500 miles), comparable to the distance between New York City and San Francisco. Lying on the west bank of the Ring of Fire Indonesia has more than 400 volcanoes, of which 130 are considered active, and many underwater volcanoes. The island of New Guinea (where the province of Papua, Indonesia is located) is the second largest island in the world.